Subcamps of KL Gross- RosenShow list of subcamps
AL Aslau was established in the mid July 1944, in a forest near to Aslau village, which is about 16 km north- east from Bunzlau. There were at least 616 prisoners in the camp. Majority of them (89%) were of polish origin, but also citizens of the USSR (7,5%), a few Frenchmen, Germans, Italians and a Czech, a Yugoslav and a Spaniard. During the camp’s existence and its evacuation at least 90 people died.
Right after the arrival prisoners worked building the camp. Later they were divided into working commandos, employed by the company Concordia- Werk from Bunzlau, to assemble Focke- Wulf jet-fighters; work was performed in halls on the airport distanced 3-4 km from the camp.
On 10th of February 1945 prisoners were evacuated on foot to Nordhausen, a subcamp of KL Mittelbau, which they reached on 16th of March 1945.
Sick ones and those, who were unable to march, were left in the camp and on 10th of February 1945 they were liberated by Soviet soldiers.
AL Bad- Warmbrunn was established in October/ November 1944. It was located directly next to production halls of the Dorries- Fullner company, in the town Bad- Warmbrunn. In the camp there were about 600- 800 men of Jewish origin, mainly from Poland and Hungary, but also form Belgium, Holland, Greece, and Czechoslovakia. Prisoners were employed in workshops of the Dorries- Fuller company, which from producing paper machines became arm industry. Some of the prisoners worked there for couple of months, being brought from AL Hirschberg before the camp was settled. In the workshops they were producing cannons (or parts of cannons), and ammunition. Epidemics of typhus that lasted for a few months caused a very high mortality in the camp: according to the doctor Arnold Mostowicz, even up to 400 prisoners could have died.
First attempt of the partial evacuation was in February1945. Group of about 100 prisoners was lead out of the camp in the north- west direction, and they reached Gryfów Śląski. Unfortunately after two days, those who survived this exhausting march, were forced back to the camp Bad- Warmbrunn. In the mid April 1945 most of prisoners was evacuated to AL Riese.
AL Bautzen was established in October 1944, on the territory of the factory Waggon- und Maschinenfabrik in Bautzen (Germany). There were at least 600 men of different nationalities in the camp. Majority of them were Poles, but also Russians, Czechs, Frenchmen, Belgians, Italians, Yugoslavians and Germans. Moreover, there was one Scot, an Austrian, and a Gypsy. In April 1945, in the camp was admitted a group of about 100 Jewish prisoners evacuated from KL Buchenwald. Most of prisoners worked in the plant Waggon- und Maschinenfabrik AG, producing railway wagons. Smaller groups worked in repair unit of the wagon company, but also by development of the camp, as well as by transport and reloading, in the factory or on the railway station.
In February 1945, after production in the factory was stopped, part of prisoners was directed to build fortifications around Bautzen. Mortality in the camp was very high: about 310 prisoners did not survive.
On 19th of April 1945, those prisoners who could still walk were evacuated in the southern direction. They came to Nixdorf (Mikulasovice, Czech Republic), where they were liberated by Polish soldiers on 8th of May 1945.
In the hospital in KL Bautzen were left about 100 sick prisoners, who were liberated by Soviet soldiers on 20th of April 1945.
FAL Bernsdorf was located about 300 meters form the Road Trautenau- Konigshau, between plants of companies Etrich, and Berko, in the town Bernsdorf (Bernartice in Czech Republik). It was established in March 1944, as a result of subordinating to Kl Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews (ZALfJ), of Schmelt organization. There were 425 women of Jewish origin in the camp (data from the turn of 1944/1945), mainly from Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany. 4 Jewish women of Polish origin died in the camp. Women worked in textile plant, Johann Etrich KG, producing sacks, and at the end of the war they were digging trenches.
On 8th or 9th of May 1945 camp was liberated by troops of Soviet army.
AL Birnbaumel was set up at the end of October 1944 in forests between villages Sulau (Sułów) and Birnbaumel, Kreis Militsch (Gruszeczka, region of Milicz). In the camp were women, who were brought there from KL Auschwitz in number of 1000, on 22nd or 27th of October 1945. This camp was supposed to fulfill the plans of secret action “Barthold”, which main purpose was to protect Lower Silesia and Wrocław against forthcoming front. Women were building ramparts and digging trenches. These works were supervised by the Unternehmen Barthold company, headquarters of which were in Kraschnitz, next to Hochweiler. Number of the deceased is not known. The certified execution concerns one prisoner, who tried to escape form the camp. She was hanged on 17th of November 1944.
On 23rd of January 1945 started the evacuation of the camp. About 20 women disbanded from the marching column and they stayed in Birnbaumel, where they were liberated. The others walked to the main camp Gross- Rosen, form where they were taken to KL Bergen- Belsen.
AL Bolkenheim was set up in August 1944 in the outskirts of Bolkenheim (Bolków), on a small hill known as “The Mountain of Richard”. Number of prisoners kept in it, was around 800 men. They were of Jewish origin, mainly from Poland, and Hungary; among them a large number of Greek Jews. Most of prisoners worked in Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke workshops, producing aerial parts. Some were directed to felling trees and road works. Full number of victims is unknown. Estimated number of dead may be even 200 people.
AL Bolkenheim was closed in mid February 1945. Sick ones, who were at a camp hospital, were killed. Remainders (about 500 men) were taken to the camp in Hirschberg (Jelenia Góra), where another group of sick ones was selected. They were sent to the nearby camp in Bad Warmbrunn. Others were evacuated on foot together with prisoners of AL Hirschberg, to Reichenau (Rychnov in Czech Republic), and then by rail, to KL Buchenwald.
AL Brandhofen was set up on 1st of March 1945, when to Brandhofen village (Saxony, Germany) was transported a group of prisoners evacuated from AL Niesky, a subcamp of KL Gross- Rosen. Camp was located in two neighboring farms. Prisoners were kept in barns. They were only men- Poles, Russians, Jews, Yugoslavs, a few Czechs, and Frenchmen. At the beginning there were around 450 prisoners. Their work was to dig trenches and antitank ditches around the town Wittichenau.
Mortality was extremely high. During a week there were dying form 10 to 15 men. Total number of the victims is about 100 men.
On 19th of April 1945 the camp was liquidated. Prisoners started marching in the direction of Dresden. The sickest ones in the number of 45 men, were left in the camp without any protection.
On 21st od April 1945 Soviet soldiers entered Brandhofen. Prisoners were taken to a field hospital in Wittichenau, but about 20 of them died.
On 22nd of April 1945 the evacuation column was broken near Dresden by a platoon of tanks of the 2nd Army of Polish Military. Some of prisoners succeeded in getting behind the front line and they were freed. The others, hiding in the forests, were shot by the SS- men, or re-captured. They were handed to Whermacht and imprisoned in Stoplen, and Neustadt. On 29th of April 1945 they were transported on the Elbe River, and in the town of Pirna they joined prisoners of a satellite camp of KL Buchenwald, Dessau, who were evacuated on barges in the direction of Czech Republic.
AL Breslau I was located in the factory Famo- Werke in Breslau (Wrocław, DOLMEL factory). The camp was set up at the turn of August and September 1944. About 2000 men were kept there. They were Poles, Russians, Italians, Ukrainians, Frenchmen, and citizens of former Yugoslavia. Mortality was very high, but it is impossible to establish the exact number of deceased. Prisoners worked in the workshops of Famo- Werke Company (Fahrzeug- und Motorenwerke),making parts to aeroplane engines, tractors, and repairing engines of “Junkers” air planes.
In the 2nd half of January 1945 (probably January 25th ), prisoners were evacuated on foot to the main camp Gross- Rosen. They reached it at the beginning of February 1945.
AL Breslau II was located in the Linke- Hofmann Werke Company, in Breslau (Wrocław, PAFAWAG factory); prisoners were accommodated over the hall no. 7. Camp was created at the turn of August and October 1944. There were 800- 1200 men kept in it, mainly Poles, but also Russians, Czechs, Ukrainians, Belgians, and a group of Chinese (13 men). Mortality was very high. Prisoners worked for the company Linke- Hoffman Werke, producing, assembling, and repairing goods wagons, and camouflaging cisterns (casing the cisterns to make them look like regular goods wagons.)
In the 2nd half of January 1945 (probably January 25th ) prisoners were evacuated on foot to the main camp Gross-Rosen, which they reached at the beginning of February 1945.
FAL Breslau- Hundsfeld was located near to the factory at Grossweidelsdorfer Street in the district Breslau- Hundsfeld. Decision of creating this camp was made on 18th of June 1944. In this camp there were kept about 1500 women prisoners of Jewish origin, from Poland, Hungary, Holland, Romania, and Germany. They were transported form KL Auschwitz. Women worked in workshops Rheinmetall- Bordig from Dusseldorf (after the war these workshops’ name was PZL Hydral), which had their unit in Wrocław during the war. They were producing sights for ant- aircraft artillery, and fuses for bombs, air plane ammunitions and other items included into air planes armament.
On 24th of January 1945 prisoners were evacuated to KL Gross- Rosen, which they reached after 3 days.
AL Breslau- Lissa was located near to the barracks in the district Breslau- Lissa (at present it is Wrocław- Leśnica, Trzmielowiecka Street). Camp was set up in August 1942. There were about 600 men, transported mostly form the camp Gross- Rosen. They were mainly Poles, but also Russians (Russian prisoners, which were transported in an unknown direction at the end of 1944), Ukrainians, Germans, Frenchmen, Czechs, and citizens of former Yugoslavia, and probably also prisoners of Jewish origin, who were admitted to this camp after the evacuation of KL Auschwitz. Number of deaths per a week is between 8 and 10 (according to former prisoners).
Prisoners were building huts for the SS- men; 250 of men worked for the Paul Urbansky Company, which was building roads and squares in the barracks. Prisoners were also servicing the barracks’ devices, working in car workshops, building warehouses, working at the battle camp, and unloading building materials on the railway station. Later they were camouflaging the buildings as well.
On 23rd of January 1945 prisoners were evacuated to KL Gross- Rosen, where they came after 3 days of march.
AL Brieg was located 6 km from the town Brieg (Brzeg), near to the village Pampitz (Pępice). First transport arrived to the camp on 7th of August 1944. There were about 1000 prisoners in the camp, mainly Poles from Warszawa and Kraków. During first six months of camp’s existence, at least 42 people died.
Priosners worked developing a military air port. These works were conducted by companies Vianova, Maszewsky, Forster.
On 25th of January 1945 priosners of AL Brieg were evacuated to KL Gross- Rosen.
AL Brunnlitz was located in buildings of the textile company Low- Beer in Brunnlitz (Brnenec in Czech Republic). Prisoners were accommodated on one storey of the factory building. Camp was set up on 22nd of October 1944.
In the camp were kept 801 men and 300 women. They were mostly Jews, Polish citizens, transported from KL Płaszów. About 60 of them died (including victims of transport from AL Golleschau, a subcamp of KL Auschwitz.)
Prisoners worked in the arms factory Deutsche Emailfabrik, owned by Oscar Schindler, evacuated from Kraków. They were freed on 7th of May 1945, after the SS- men escaped.
AL Buchwald- Hochenwiese was established in the antituberculous sanatorium in the town Buchwald (Bukowiec), no later than in November 1944. About 25 prisoners were kept there. They were Jews, most probably of polish origin. They worked in the sanatorium maintenaning lavatories, in the boiler room, and developping the sanatorium.
In February 1945 prisoners were probably evacuated to the nearby camp in Hirschberg (Jelenia Góra), but there is also possibility that they were liberated in Buchenwald in May 1945.
AL Bunzlau I was set up in May 1944, as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews (ZALfJ) of Schmelt organization that was functioning from the beginning of 1942, prisoners of which were working in the company Bunzlauer Holzindustrie Hubert Land in Bunzlau (Bolesławiec). The camp was located in this factory, at that time on the Menzel Street 2 (at present, Staroszkolna Street 18). First prisoners of AL Bunzlau I were 458 Jews, Polish citizens from Zagłębie Dąbrowskie, who successfully went through the selection conducted in the camp. In next weeks and months to this camp were directed transports form other liquidated camps of Schmelt Organization, also form KL Gross- Rosen, and KL Auschwitz. At the end of summer 1944 number of prisoners grew to 1200 people. At the end of camps’ existence, there were about 1000- 1100 prisoners. Almost all men were of Jewish origin, mainly form Poland, and Hungary; but also citizens of Holland, France and Belgium. Number of victims is unknown, but probably was not high. Prisoners still worked in Hubert Land’s timber company workshops and by their development, where soon company Becco was placed, and next aerial plants Weser Flugzeugbau evacuated from Brema. Prisoners mostly worked by production: In Weser- Flug- parts for jet- fighters FW 190; in Becco Company: repairing cannons, and tanks; in Hubert Land’s workshops: building huts, camp furniture, and airplane catches.
On 11th of February 1945, about 700- 850 prisoners were evacuated on foot to KL Mittelbau, where on 25th of March 1945, came only about 541 extremely exhausted prisoners. In the camp hospital of AL Bunzlau I were left sick ones, who were liberated by Soviet soldiers on 12th of February 1945.
AL Bunzlau II was set up on 2nd of October 1944. It was located on the 3rd and 5th floors of the factory building of Concordia Spinerei und Weberei Company in Bunzlau (Bolesławiec), on Concordia Street (at present Orla Street). In the camp were kept about 650 men, mainly Poles (60%) and citizens of the USSR (33%), but also a few Germans, Frenchmen, Yugoslavians, Croats, Belgians, Italians, and Czechs. Transports directed to this camp were mainly form neighboring subcamps: AL Aslau, and AL Bunzlau I, and also form KL Gross- Rosen. Number of victims is unknown, but it was not high. All the prisoners workedin the aerial plants belonging to the company Weser- Flugzeugbau AG, which transferred its factories form Brema to the buildings of the textile company Concordia in Bolesławiec. Prisoners were mostly making wings to jet- fighters “Focke- Wulf 190”
On 11th of February 1945, those prisoners who were able to walk were evacuated on foot to KL Mittelbau. In Bunzlau II were left sick ones, who were then taken to Bunzlau I, where they were liberated by Soviet soldiers on 12th of February 1945.
Evacuation march, during which died 155 people, lasted over a month. On 15th of March 1945 only 441 utterly exhausted prisoners were admitted in KL Mittelbau. 36 of them died in the new camp, before the evacuation to KL Bergen- Belsen in April 1945. Those, who survived this evacuation, liberated British soldiers on 15th of April 1945.
FAL Christianstadt was located in a forest, near to the town Christianstadt (Krzystkowice). It was set up in September 1944. In the camp there were women of Jewish origin form Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria, and Holland. At the beginning prisoners were shearing trees, and preparing the ground for a road, and a railway. Later a large number of women was directed to work in the factory Dynamit AG Nobel distanced 4- 5 km from the camp. They were filling grenades with explosives.
In the first days of February 1945 camp was evacuated. After about 4 weeks, exhausted women reached KL Bergen- Belsen.
AL Dyhernfurth I was in the factory Anorgana in the town Dyhernfurth (Brzeg Dolny). Prisoners were accommodated in a bricked, one- storied hut, near to the factory they were working at.
Camp was set up in summer 1943. In general there were about 450 prisoners, mostly Poles, but also Russians, Czechs, Germans, and Gypsies.
Prisoners worked directly by production of tabun gas ; they were filling bombs with it, checking their tightness, cleaning the underground gas containers, and controlling the devices down there.
On 24th of January 1945 prisoners were evacuated on foot to the main camp Gross- Rosen
AL Dyhernfurth II was located about 1 km from Anorgana plants, in the town Dyhernfurth, in a pine forest. The camp was created in summer or autumn 1943. There were kept about 3000 prisoners, mainly Poles, and Russians, but also Czechs, Frenchmen, Croats, Italians, Gypsies, Dutchmen, Germans, and Jews. Documents concerning mortality rate in the camp did not preserved. Prisoners, who worked at the camp hospital, estimated it at about 20- 30 people a week.
Prisoners worked developping the Anorgana plants, mostly making groundwork, building, transporting cement, or sand, and unloading wagons. A small number of prisoners was employed as locksmiths, clerks, painters, and draughts men.
Except for the company Luranil responsible for development of the plant, subcontractors also took advantage of prisoners’ work. They were: Simon und Halfpaap Company, Robert Hahn Company (Brzeg Dolny), Arbeitsgemeinschaft Wilhelm Beck- Alfred Kohler (Wrocław), horst Dylla (Dekorationsmaler), Strassenbaugesellschaft E. Kemna und Co., Reichwalder Ziegelei, Paul Garbe (Bauunternehmung, Wrocław), Baugemeinschaft Grafschaft Glatz, H. R. Heincke (Wrocław), Florentius Brichta (Wrocław, Tiefbau/ Eisenbeton/ Strassenbau), E. Hegerfeld (Industriegesellschaft fur Hoch-, Tief-, Beton-, und Stahlbetonbau), Reiners und Co. (Tiefbauunternehmung, Brzeg Dolny), Max Wolter (Betonsteinwerk, Wrocław), Baugemeinschaft Oels/ Niederschlesien, R. H. Heinicke (Wrocław), AEG Company, C. Mennicke Nachf. (Wrocław), Fritz Hudig (Hoch Tief- Eisenbetonbau), Loser Bauunternehmung KG, Steffens u. Nolle, Gutmann, Klaude, Krug, Steelworks AG (Wrocław), Dyckerhoff u. Wiedemann (Wrocław), Brucken u. Stahlbau- Wggonbau- Tiefbau Beuchelt u. Co. (Zielona Góra), Martin Burger (Malermeister form Wrocław), Vogel (Schwienfurth).
On 24th of January 1945, prisoners (except for the sick ones) were evacuated on foot to the main camp in Gross- Rosen. On 25th of January 1945 all the sick prisoners were driven out of the camp and executed on the railway bridge on the Odra River.
FAL Freiburg (Świebodzice) was established on 12th of January 1945, when a transport of 150 Jewish women form Hungary arrived there. They were accommodated in a hut in the outskirts of the town, about 3 km from the factory. Women worked producing small parts for the air planes, in the AEG Company from Berlin (Allgemeine Elektrcitats- Gesellschaft), which placed a part of their production in the buildings of a textile factory Hermann Teichgraber.
On 13th of February 1945 prisoners were evacuated on foot to a subcamp of KL Gross- Rosen- AL Wustegiersdorf, and then to a subcamp of KL Flossenburg in Zwodau.
AL Friedland was located about 1 km from Friedland town (Mieroszów), near the road form Waldenberg (Wałbrzych), between the road, a railway, and a river, at the foot of a small hill. The camp was established on 8th of September 1944, and there were 515 prisoners brought form KL Auschwitz, mostly Jews form the Łódź ghetto, and Jews, citizens of Slovakia, who came to Auschwitz from Theresienstadt. From about 120 prisoners buried in the village Friedland, 21 were prisoners of this camp; remainders were prisoners evacuated form the “Riese” complex.
Large part of prisoners (434) worked in the factory of propellers for the VDM (Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke, Hamburg). Their work was to mould propellers. 40 prisoners worked at the carpenters’ (Fritz Schuber Company). Later, some prisoners were directed to drill caves inside of a nearby mountain. Aim of those works remains unknown.
On 9th of May 1945, Soviet soldiers entered AL Friedland and liberated prisoners.
AL Funfteichen (Miłoszyce) was set up at the turn of September and October 1943. It was located in the fork of a railway tracks form Miłoszyce to Wrocław through Nadolice Wielkie and from Miłoszyce to Wrocław through Czernica. This camp was the largest subcamp of KL Gross- Rosen. There were at least 6000 men of different nationalities. Except for Poles, who were the most numerous, there were also Jews (from Poland, and Hungary); Frenchmen, Belgians, Dutchmen, Russians, Czechs, and Croats. Most of prisoners worked in Jelcz workshops of Maschinenfabriken Friedrich Krupp Berthawerkk AG, where they were making cannons caliber 75 and 155 mm, and torpedo launchers, or by the constant development of the workshops. Mortality in the camp was extremely high. Estimated data say about even 2000 victims.
On 21st of January 1945 started on- foot evacuation of about 6000 men. After 4 days of this “Death March”, decimated column of prisoners reached the main camp KL Gross- Rosen. The march cost life another 1000 of prisoners.
In the camp hospital of AL Funfteichen were left about 300 seriously ill prisoners, who were liberated by Soviet soldiers on 23rd of January 1945.
AL Fürstenstein zorganizowano na wzgórzu w pobliżu zamku Fürstenstein (Książ), w maju 1944 r. Więźniami byli Żydzi, obywatele polscy, węgierscy i greccy. Głównym ich zajęciem było drążenie sztolni pod zamkiem. Ponadto pracowali przy przeładunku materiałów budowlanych.
Około 16.02.1945 r. nastąpiła ewakuacja obozu. Więźniowie dotarli pieszo do Trutnova (Czechy), a następnie koleją do KL Flossenbürg.
FAL Gabersdorf (Libeč in Czech Republic) was created after 22nd of March 1944, as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews (ZALfJ) of the Schmelt Organization. There were 350- 370 women prisoners of Jewish origin, mainly form Poland and Hungary. They worked producing threads in workshops of company Hasse, and company Etrich, as well as in the spinning plant Vereinigte Textilwerke K. Z. Barthel.
The camp was liberated on 8th of May 1945.
AL Gablonz was located in Gablonz (Jablonec in Czech Republic), in the factory Feinapparatenbau GmbH belonging to concern Carl Zeiss Jena, in November 1944. There were about 500 prisoners in this camp, mainly Poles, but also Russians, Czechs, and Germans. Prisoners worked in the factory, processing parts to air- planes, and producing parts to weapons. Some of them were building and repairing railway near to the station Gablonz.
On 8th of May 1945 was ordered the evacuation of the camp, during which prisoners were freed.
AL Gassen was set up at the end of September 1944. It was located about 1 km northern- east form the town Gassen (Jasień). Prisoners of the camp were mainly Poles, citizens of the USSR, Frenchmen, Croats, and Czechs. There were about 700 men in the camp. They worked in the factory Focke- Wulf AG, producing air- plane parts.
Tha camp was evacuated in February 1945. Sick prisoners were transported to KL Buchenwald; transport with 55 people reached this camp on 23rd of February 1945. Prisoners who were able to march, left the camp on 12th of February 1945. During the evacuation at least 120 prisoners died. On 5th of March 1945 prisoners were registered in KL Buchenwald.
FAL Gebhabersdorf was located on a hill, near the town Gebhabersdorf (Giebułtów). The camp was established in September 1944. There were about 500 Jewish women, mainly from Poland, and Hungary, who were brought from KL Auschwitz. All women prisoners worked in plants of the aircraft industry Aerobau- Heinrich Lehmann KG in Gebhabersdorf/ Isergebierge.
On 18th of January 1945 women were evacuated to FAL Kratzau.
AL Geppersdorf was created at the end of January, or at the beginning of February 1945 in the town Geppersdorf (Milęcice near Lwówek Śląski). To the camp was directed a group of men (400 people), of the evacuation transport from KL Auschwitz. They were mainly Jews from Poland, Germany, Hungary, Holland, France, but also Poles, Frenchmen, and Germans. Prisoners were building field defences.
In April 1945, some of the prisoners were transported to two other subcamps of KL Gross- Rosen- to AL Dörnhau, and to AL Brünnlitz. The remaining ones were liberated on 9th of May 1945.
AL Görlitz was created in August 1944, in the southern- west outskirts of Görlitz (Germany), in the settlement Biesnitzer Grund. Territory of the camp was divided into men’s and women’s part. Through this camp went about 1000 men, and 500 women. All imprisoned ones were of Jewish origin, form Poland, and Hungary. Large part of prisoners (both men, and women) worked in plants Waggon und Maschinenbau AG, where were produced armoured vehicles, as well as in machine factory, where were produced grenades. Smaller groups of prisoners were building roads, doing cleaning works in the nearby camp for war prisoners, Stalag VIII A, and in the town park. Moreover, to AL Görlitz was subordinated a small outer commando, localized in the village Kunnerwitz. 25 prisoners of this group worked in farming.
Mortality in the camp was very high. Number of dead is estimated at 470 people.
The evacuation started in February 1945. Men were taken to the town Rennensdorf, were a new camp was set up. Fate of women in unknown. After 3 weeks, when the front stabilized itself, there was ordered return from Rennensdorf to Görlitz. Prisoners worked building the “Görlitz fortress” . The camp was liberated on 8th of May1945, by Soviet soldiers
FAL Gräben was created at the turn of May and June 1944, as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen already functioning in Gräben (Grabina, at present a district of Strzegom town), women camp of forced labor for Jews (ZALfJ), of the Schmelt Organization. The camp was situated in the direct neighborhood of plants belonging initially to companies Rüffel u. Deutsch and Vige, and then to the Falke company. There were about 500 Jewish women in the camp, mainly from Poland. Large number of women was from Hungary, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgium, and Holland. Women worked as flax- dressers.
In February 1945 the camp was liquidated, and prisoners were evacuated, partly on foot, partly by trains, to KL Bergen- Belsen.
FAL Grafenort was created at the turn of March and April 1944, when to a bricked building in the outskirts of the town Grafenort (Gorzanów) were transferred about 200 women prisoners from FAL Mittelsteine (Ścinawka Średnia). They were all Jewish from Poland, from Łódź region. Women were employed mainly by trench digging, and cleaning the area of the railway. Some of them worked in the nearby paper factory.
On 8th of May 1945, after an unsuccessful attempt of evacuation, women prisoners were liberated by the Soviet soldiers.
FAL Gräflich- Röhrsdorf was located in the outskirts of the town Gräflich- Röhrsdorf (Skarbków near Mirsk), at the foot of the mountain Märzberg. It was establushed on 4th of September 1944, as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews (ZALfJ), of Schmelt Organization. There were 150 women prisoners in the camp. They worked in the spinning plant of the Herman Teichgräber, processing the flax in the barn in the town Egelsdorf (Mroczkowice), and for the company AGD from Berlin, which transferred some of their workshops to Gräflich- Röhrsdorf.
At the end of January 1945 women were evacuated to the subcamp of KL Gross-Rosen, AL Kratzau, where they were liberated.
AL Gross- Koschen was established in October 1944. There were about 850 men in it, mainly citizens of the USSR, Poles were less in number; there were also a few Frenchmen, Croats, Yugoslavians, Czechs, Belgians, Greeks, Italians, and Germans. Dead ones were buried near the concentration camp. Number of victims is unknown. Prisoners worked for the company Deutsche Aluminiumwerke. In its workshop, located in AL Gross- Koschen, they were disassembling the destroyed air- planes and winning those parts that remained functioning. At the end of the war prisoners were building shelters and defensive ditches.
Evacuation started on 24th of February 1945. Prisoners were taken to KL Buchenwald in two transports. Last group of 100 prisoners was transferred to KL Flossenbürg, and then to KL Dachau.
AL Grülich was created at the end of September 1944 in the town Grülich (Kŕaliky in Czech Republic), in the neighbourhood of the company Fahrzeug u. Motorwerke. In the camp there were about 190 prisoners, mainly Poles and Russians. Some of them worked in the factory, producing air- plane propellers. The remaining ones were building the new camp.
Between 6th and 8th of May 1945, during the evacuation, prisoners were freed.
FAL Grünberg I was located in the old factory Deutsche Wollwaren Manufaktur, at Breslauer Street 33 in Grünberg (Zielona Góra). It was created in June 1944 as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews (ZALfJ), of the Schmelt Organization. Its prisoners were Jewish women from Poland, and Czech Republic. There were a 1000 of them. Women worked in the factory Deutsche Wollwaren Manufaktur, making materials for uniforms, military coats, parachutes, and blankets.
On 29th of January 1945, started the evacuation. Prisoners who were unable to walk, were left in the camp, where they were liberated, while the evacuated women were divided into two groups. The first one reached KL Bergen- Belsen at the end of February 1945; the second went to Helmbrechts- a subcamp of KL Flossenbürg, in the first quarter of March 1945. During the evacuation at least 104 women died.
AL Grünberg II was established on the territory of the factory Deutsche Wollwaren Manufaktur, at the Breslauer Street 33, in Grünberg (zielona Góra). It existed from October 1944. Its prisoners were Jews- citizens of Hungary. The camp was evacuated on 29th of January 1945
FAL Guben was in the forest near the town Guben (Gubin). It was set up at the beginning of August 1944. Its prisoners were mainly Jewish women from Hungary. There were about 1000 of them in the camp. Women worked in the radio factory of the Lorenz AG company.
At the beginning of February 1945 the camp was evacuated. After 3- 4 weeks women reached the camp in Bergen- Belsen.
AL Halbau was established around 15th of July 1944 in the clearing, southern- west from the village Gräflich- Zeisau (Czyżówek), near the town Halbau (Iłowa). There were 1000 prisoners in the camp, mainly Poles and Russians, of whom at least 64 died. Majority of prisoners worked in the Winkler factory producing military air- plane propellers. There was also a group responsible for loading the propellers.
On 12th of February 1945 started the evacuation. Prisoners who were sick, or unable to march, were left in the hospital barrack in the camp. They were liberated between 17th and 20th of February 1945. The evacuated ones reached KL Bergen- Belsen around 10th of March 1945. Probably 300 men died during the evacuation.
FAL Halbstadt (Mezimesti in Czech Republic) was set up in October 1944. There were about 500 Jewish women from Poland (from the Łódź ghetto), and from Hungary, brought form KL Auschwitz. Prisoners worked in Knopf’s weaver workshop, assembling measuring equipment in the Deutsche Mess- und Apparatenbau Geselschaft company (MESSAP), and in the Schroll u. Söhne company, producing gas masks.
The camp was liberated on 8th or 9th of May 1945, by the Soviet army.
AL Hartmansdorf was created in the town Hartmansdorf (Miłoszów), in the second half of April 1944. By the time the huts were built in the neighborhood of the Hartmann’s silk factory, prisoners were accommodated in a factory hall. There were about 600 people in the camp, most of whom were Poles, but also citizens of the USSR, Germans, Czechs, and Frenchmen.
Some prisoners worked in the factory producing metal elements, as well as sacks, and materials necessary for the army. 150 prisoners were directed to build tunnels in the rocky hill in the town Marklissa (Leśna near Lubań), distanced about 5 km from the camp. There was also a commando appointed to built the road in the mountains in Marklissa.
On 15th or 16th of February 1945, started the partial evacuation of the camp. The ones able to walk, reached KL Buchenwald on 12th of March 1945. During the evacuation at least 100 of exhausted prisoners were shot. In the camp’s hospital were left sick prisoners, who were transported to a subcamp of KL Gross- Rosen in Zittau on 19th of March 1945.
Labor commando Hirschberg, which was an outer commando of KL Gross- Rosen, began functioning between 18th of April, and 6th of May 1943 in Hirschberg town (Jelenia Góra). The camp was located about 300- 500 meters from the workshops of wooden wool Schlesischen Zellwolle A.G. Hirschberg und Riesengebierge, who were being built at that time (after the war these workshops were producing cellulose). There were about 100-110 men of polish origin in the camp. They were brought from the main camp in Gross- Rosen. Majority of their work consisted in setting up the factory halls of Zellwolle workshops, but also in sorting the wood lumber, or unloading the building materials. Most of prisoners was sent out of the commando in autumn 1943. The last information about camp’s activity comes from January 1944.
In the middle of March 1944, as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews (ZALfJ), of Schmelt Organization, Hirschberg turned into a subcamp. It was by the Bóbr river, near to developing Zellwolle workshops. In the camp there were men of Jewish origin mostly from Poland, Belgium, and Holland. Prisoners were forced to do the wood- processing in the Schlesien Zellwolle A. G. Hirschberg wooden wool workshops, to unload the coal- dust, and in the workshops of Askania Werke.
Between 28th of February, and 1st of March 1945, the camp was evacuated, first to AL Reichenau (Rychnov in Czech Republic), and then to KL Buchenwald.
FAL Hochweiler was established on 20th of October 1944 in the town Hochweiler, Kreis Militsch (Wierzchowice near Milicz). There were Jewish women in the camp, mainly from Hungary, Romania, and Czechoslovakia, who were brought from KL Auschwitz. Initially there were only 1000 of them. They worked digging defensive ditches, trenches, and fortifications. Works were supervised by the company Unternehmen Barthold, headquarters of which were in the nearby town Kraschnitz. Works, conducted by the prisoners of Hochweiler, were a part of the plan of securing Lower Silesia from the front. This action received the cryptonym “Barthold”.
The camp was evacuated on 20th of January 1945. Some women reached KL Bergen- Belsen on 12th of February 1945, but there are also cases of liberating women in Hochweiler.
AL Kamenz was located in the closed cloth factory Nosske & Co., on the Herrental 9 street, in Kamenz (Saxony in Germany). The camp was set up in the middle of December 1944, when from KL Gross- Rosen arrived the first transport of 120 prisoners. They were Frenchmen arrested for the participation in the action “Night and Fog”. The last big transport, of 750 prisoners from KL Flossenbürg, was registered in AL Kamenz on 26th of January 1945. In general there were about 870 men in the camp. The most numerous national groups were as follows: Russians, and Frenchmen (26,7%, and 23,8%), then Italians (13,8%), Poles (12,2%), Polish Jews (7,1%), Belgians (4,7%), Germans (3,6%), and Czechs (3,4%); there were also: a Dutchman, a Croat, a Hungarian Jew, a Serb, a Hungarian, a Slovene, an Austrian, a Greek, a Spaniard, a Ukrainian, and an Italian Jew.
The mortality in the camp was very high. Estimated number of victims is no less than 125, and maybe even 160. Corpses were burnt in the boiler- room of the Nosske plant, which was adapted specially for this purpose. Prisoners worked producing i. e. aero engines for a unit of the stock corporation Daimler Benz from Colmar in Alsace, transferred to Kamenz, where it worked as Elster GmbH. Work was conducted in the rooms of the local glass- works, and the Minkwitz cloth company.
The first attempt of the evacuation was undertaken in the middle of February 1945, however, after couple of hours of march prisoners were taken back to the camp. Final liquidation of AL Kamenz happened on 10th of March 1945. After six days of travel in cattle- trucks, prisoners were brought to KL Dachau.
AL Kittlitztreben was established at the turn of February and March 1944, on the forest margin near to the town Kittlitztreben (Trzebień). There were about 1700- 1800 men of Jewish origin, mainly from Poland, and Hungary, but also from Germany, Austria, and Belgium. Prisoners worked for at least 18 companies, like: Grülich, Hübsch, Koder, Krause, Kunigals, Kunnith, Leistikoff, Madeburn, Mischke, Poikett, Reiners, Schulz, Tiessler, Wiedermann, Zimke, Peuke und Jeche, and Stein und Teer. Initially prisoners worked developing and arranging the camp, and next for the Luftwaffe in different work places in the forest. Prisoners were grubbing the trees, building the railroad, concrete roads, ammunition warehouses, barracks for the soldiers. They also worked in transporting commandos carrying away the wood from the forest, and transporting and putting the ammunition boxes in the warehouses. Part of prisoners was probably producing air plane parts. Mortality in the camp was very high, however, the exact number of victims was not confirmed. It might be several hundreds of men.
In February 1945, about 1000 of prisoners were evacuated on foot, to the south. During this march groups of prisoners were left in still functioning subcamps of KL Gross- Rosen, Görlitz, and Zittau. On 4th of April 1945 the evacuation column reached KL Buchenwald.
In Al Kittlitztreben’s hospital wee left 300 badly ill prisoners who were liberated by the Soviet soldiers.
Labor commando Klein Radisch was in the town Klein Radisch, near Klitten (in Saxony, Germany). It was a labor commando of AL Niesky (a subcamp of KL Gross- Rosen). It was established probably in September, or in October 1944. Its prisoners were only men brought from Niesky. Number of imprisoned in Klein Radisch, as well as the number of victims, is unknown. Prisoners conducted some field works.
After 20th of February 1945 prisoners of this commando were joined to the evacuation group from AL Niesky.
FAL Kratzau I (Chrostava in Czech Republic), was set up in the middle of October 1944. Prisoners of the camp were Jewish women from Poland, Czech Republic, France, Belgium, Holland, and Denmark, who were brought from KL Auschwitz. Before the liberation, there were about 1000 women in the camp. According to researchers from Czech Republic, mortality in FAL Kratzau I was very high, but there are no sources that could confirm this.
Prisoners worked for the company Deutsche Industriewerke AG (DIWAG), producing ammunition, and for the company Schroll producing gas masks, as well as for the companies Tannenwald, and Tolex.
The camp was liberated on 5th or 8th of May 1945.
FAL Kratzau II was in the town Klein Schönau (near Zittau in Germany). It was probably set up in November 1944. There were about 150 women in the camp, transferred from KL Auschwitz, but also sick prisoners from the FAL Kratzau I were directed there. Women worked producing ammunition in the Zitt- Werke AG workshops. Between February and March 1945, in the camp died seven women.
The camp was liberated on 5th or 8th of May 1945.
Labor commando Kunnerwitz was in the village Kunnerwitz (Germany), about 9 km south from Görlitz. It was a permanent outer labor commando subordinated to AL Görlitz. There were 25 men of Jewish origin in the camp. All of them worked in agriculture.
FAL Kurzbach was established at the end of October 1944, in the town Kurzbach, Kreis Militsch (Bukołowo near Milicz). Women prisoners were accommodated in the former sheep- fold, in the estate of duke von Hatzfeld. There were 1000 Jewish women in the camp, originating mainly from Hungary, Slovakia, and Poland, transported from KL Auschwitz. Prisoners worked for the company Unternehmen Barthold, which was responsible for preparing fortifications on the foregrounds of Lower Silesia and Wrocław, within the framework “Barthold”. Women worked building entrenchments, earthen fortifications, and anti- tank trenches.
The camp was evacuated in two stages. Around 18th or 20th of January 1945 those women, who were able to walk were directed to the main camp in Gross- Rosen, from where they were evacuated to KL Bergen- Belsen. Sick prisoners were taken out later. Those, who were not up to the murderous march, were killed by the SS members, who were escorting the column. Number of victims of this subcamp has not been determined.
AL Landeshut was created in the middle of July 1944, in the southern- west part of Landeshut (Kamienna Góra), between a railway track, and the river Bóbr, on the present Zielona street. There were about 1600 men in the camp, mainly from Poland, but also smaller groups of Russians, Czechs, Croats, and Germans. Most of prisoners worked in three workshops of the Fa. Kugelfisher company producing ball- bearings. The hardest work was in workshop no 3, where in electric ovens were pressed collars for further processing. In workshop no 1 were made collars for the bearings, which were then polished, and hardened; in workshop no 2 took place assembling of ball- bearings, testing their quality, and consignment. When in February 1945 the production was stopped, prisoners were digging anti- tank trenches and fortifications around the town. Total number of victims of AL Landeshut is unknown, however mortality was very high. Corpses were transported to the main camp in Gross- Rosen to the end of January 1945. Later, the dead were buried in Landeshut. After the war there were exhumed about 200 bodies of prisoners who died during the last three months of the camp’s functioning.
On 14th of February 1945 happened unsuccessful attempt of evacuation. After a march in the direction of Lubawka, prisoners were forced to return to the camp. Finally, on 9th of May 1945, AL Landeshut was liberated by Soviet soldiers.
AL Langenbielau I was created in the middle of 1944, between the towns Langenbielau (Bielawa), and Reichenbach (Dzierżoniów). In literature this camp is also called “Reichenbach camp”, or “Sportschule”. In general, through this camp went about 2000 prisoners of Jewish origin, mainly from Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia. Prisoners worked for many different companies, like: Siling I (in the former loom C. Dierig AG), Siling II (in the Jordan loom), Zill u. Knebich, Hansen u. Neumann, Lehmann, Spinerei G. F. Fletcher, Telefunken, Krupp, Rebisch from Schweidnitz, Richter u. Schädel (Blockhäuserbau), Flugzeugfabrik “Preschona”, Goldschmidt, Radiofabrik Hagenuk from Kiel. At the end of the war prisoners were digging entrenchments. Number of victims remains unknown. Those, who were not able to work, were driven to the hospital in the Dörnahu camp (Kolce). To the end of January 1945, deaceased were transported to the main camp, later they were buried at place.
In February 1945, part of prisoners was evacuated to KL Dachau. Those, who were left in the camp, liberated Soviet soldiers.
FAL Langenbielau II was created in the 2nd half of 1944. There were about 550 women of Jewish origin in the camp, mainly citizens of Poland. They worked in several workshops, like textile industry G. F. Fletcher, Siling I (in the former loom C. Dierig), Siling II (in the former Jordan loom), Siling Heine, Siling Rosenberg, Josef Fröhlich, Munitionsfabrik Diehl, Radioapparatenfabrik Hagenuk I and II, and in the Lehmann workshop. The camp was liberated on 8th of May 1945, by the Soviet army.
FAL Liebau was established in September 1944, in the outskirts of the town Liebau (Lubawka), partly in the former army barracks. It was a women subcamp, belonging to the group of camps supervised by the “SS- Trautenau”. There were about 500 prisoners in the camp. They were Jewish women from Hungary, but also from Holland, Poland, Belgium, and France. To FAL Liebau they came from KL Auschwitz. 10 of them did not survive the camp’s ordeal. Women worked in three armament plants in Liebau: Fa. Nordland GmbH, producing tank tracks, and wheel chains; in the former furniture factory of Kurt Laske, producing boxes for ammunition, and in the company Heinz Wendt Maschinenfabrik, producing air- plane parts. In the last weeks of camp’s existence women were directed to groundwork, by building of the air- port.
The camp was not evacuated. Prisoners were liberated on 8th of May 1945 by the Soviet soldiers.
FAL Ludwigsdorf was created in July 1944. It was in a valley in the outskirts of Ludwigsdorf (Ludwikowice Kłodzkie), surrounded by forests and mountains. Earlier, since June 1942, in that place was a camp of forced labor for Jews, of the Schmelt organization (ZALfJ). The camp was for both men and women. In July 1944, it was changed into a women subcamp of KL Gross-Rosen. Men were driven out, and in their place arrived new transports with women. In FAL Ludwigsdorf there were about 600 women of Jewish origin, mainly from Poland, and Hungary, as well as from Holland. Women worked in the ammunition factory Dynamit AG and Mölke- Werke. This job was extremely hard and harmful to health. Women had a constant contact with toxic chemicals, and, most of all, with gunpowder that is very dangerous for human’s health. Mortality in the camp was very high. It is estimated that even 300 women might die. In January 1945, when production in the factory stopped, prisoners were digging ditches, and making fortifications.
In the middle of April 1945, some women were transported to a subcamp of KL Gross- Rosen in Görlitz. In Lugwigsdorf were left only those, who were badly ill, or could not walk. At night between 8th and 9th of May 1945 they were liberated by the Soviet army.
FAL Mährisch Weisswasser (Bila Voda in Czech Republic), was set up in September 1944. In the camp there were Jewish women from Hungary, Poland, Romania, and France, brought from KL Auschwitz. Prisoners worked for the company Telefunken. In November 1944 there worked 200 women.
On 8th of May 1945 prisoners were freed.
FAL Merzdorf was established in August 1944, however since 1942 in that place existed a camp of forced labor for Jews of the “Schmelt” organization (ZALfJ). There were women from Dąbrowskie Basin in the camp. In summer 1944, after it was subordinated to KL Gross- Rosen, there was a selection among prisoners. Those of women, who were regarded as able to work, became the first prisoners of AL Merzdorf. The camp was situated on the 4th floor of the linen factory Kramsta- Methner und Frahne AG in Merzdorf (Marciszów).
In the camp there were about 400 Jewish women. Half of them originated from Poland, the other half- from Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Germany. Transports with prisoners came mainly from KL Auschwitz. Women worked in spinning plant and the loom of the Krmasta- Methner und Frahne AG company. The exact number of victims is unknown. It is estimated that till the end of 1944 from the camp were taken (probably for an execution) ten women (7 badly ill, and 3 pregnant); and in 1945 several more women died in the hospital barrack.
FAL Merzdorf was not evacuated, but liberated by Russians on 8th of May 1945.
FAL Mittelsteine was established near to town Mittelsteine (Ścinawka Średnia), in the 2nd half of August 1944. There were about 400 Jewish women, who were mainly citizens of Poland, and Hungary. Most of prisoners worked in the local affiliated company Fa. Albert Patin, Werkstätten für Fernsteuerungstechnik from Berlin, producing ammunition, however some women were building hidings for the ammunition factory, as well as shelters on the camp’s territory.
In April 1945, the camp was liquidated and prisoners were transported to Poland, to Grafenort (Gorzanów), were a new camp was set up. Hungarian women were taken to FAL Mährisch Weisswasser (Bila Voda in Czech Republic).
FAL Morchenstern was created on 19th of February 1945, when to the town Morchenstern (Smržovka in Czech Republic) came a transport of 300 women prisoners evacuated form the subcamp of KL Gross- Rosen, FAL Zillerthal- Erdmansdorf. They were probably accommodated in the factory. Women worked in the plant Mitteldeutsche Motorenwerke GmbH (MIMO), which was a branch of the company Auto- Union from Taucha, near Leipzig. In Morchenstern workshops of this company were located in buildings of the company Johann Priebsch AG, under the name Iser- Werke.
On 15th of March 1945 women were evacuated to KL Mittelbau- Dora.
FAL Neusalz was created in June 1944, as a result of subordinating a camp of forced labor for Jews of the „Schmelt” organization. It was located near the factory Gruschwitz Textilwereke AG in Neusalz (Nowa Sól). There were about 900 Jewish women, mainly originating form Poland, Czech Republic, and Germany. Women worked in the Gruschwitz Textilwere AG factory producing threads, but they were also growing and picking flax, and some of them were loading cars with boxes with ammunition.
On 1st of January 1945 the camp was evacuated, except for those of prisoners, who were badly ill. Their further fate is unknown. Group of evacuated women reached KL Bergen- Belsen, around the middle of March 1945.
AL Niederoderwitz was set up in the first days of January 1945 in the town Niederoderwitz (Saxony in Germany), several kilometers southern- west form Zittau. On 6th of January 1945, here were put 140 Hungarian Jews, brought from KL Flossenbürg. They were assigned to work in the Osram company, which they were about to conduct in the underground factory of this company, in Leitmeritz (Litomierzyce in Czech Republic). They were taught the job in the factory Osram Apparatenbau GmbH in Niederoderwitz. On 23rd of February 1945 prisoners were transported to Leitmeritz.
AL Niesky was established in the outskirts of Niesky (Germany), near a forest, in the middle of 1944. First transport with prisoners came to AL Niesky in the last days of July, or in the first days of August 1944, from the mother camp in Gross- Rosen. Its prisoners were only men- Poles, Russians, Jews, Yugoslavians, and a few Czechs, and Frenchmen. Initially there were only 600 prisoner in the camp, but this number increased to about 1000- 1200 men. Mortality was very high; in winter 1944/45 there were dying several prisoners a day. To this fact contribute also testimonies of former prisoners, according to whom, once a month to AL Niesky were brought 100-150 people to keep the constant number of 1000 prisoners.
Men worked in metal workshops of the company Christoph u. Unmack AG, belonging to the Krupp consortium. Mostly they were dismantling, or repairing damaged, fired at, or old passenger carriages, and freight wagons, but also changing them into lorries, and open platforms, where could be placed anti- aircraft missiles.
In February 1945 started the evacuation of the camp. March lasted to the end of February, when prisoners reached the town Brandhofen, where a new camp was set up. During the evacuation march, weak prisoners, and those, who could not follow the others, were shot and buried in forests. In the camp were left only those, who were not able to walk. AL Niesky was liberated on 18th of April 1945 by soldiers of the 2nd Army of WP.
AL Nimptsch was functioning since 01st of December 1944. It was located near the town Nimptsch (Niemcza). Prisoners of this camp were men, mostly of Polish origin. In a transport of 150 men from KL Gross- Rosen, which arrived in Nimptsch in January 1945, came such professionals, as: bricklayers, carpenters, roofers, electricians, and others. Prisoners were doing finishing works on the territory of the satellite- camp, and probably worked in the metal factory.
On 25th or 27th of January 1945 prisoners were evacuated to AL Langenbielau, where they kept their independence as “Nimptsch commando”, and lived in a barrack separated with a wire fence. Some of them were liberated in there.
FAL Ober Altstadt (Hořejši Staré Mĕsto in Czech Republic) was set up on 18th of March 1944, as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews of the „Schmelt“ organization (ZALfJ). In the camp there were only Jewish women, mainly from Poland, and Hungary. In November 1944 total number of prisoners was 950. Women worked in the linen workshops of the Ignatz Etrich and J. A. Kluge, but also produced engines in the company Simens Motorenwerke Jungbuch.
The camp was liberated on 5th or 8th of May 1945.
FAL Ober Hohenelbe was in the northern part of the town Ober Hohenelbe
(Hořejši Vrchlabi in Czech Republic), by the road from Vrchlabi to
Spindlarovy Mlyn. It was established, when on 12th of September 1944 to
this town came a transport of 250 women prisoners from KL Auschwitz. In
November 1944, also from KL Auschwitz, arrived there another transport
of about 150 Jewish women from Hungary, and Slovakia. In November 1944
there were 400 women in the camp. There are no data about mortality
rate, except for the information that large number of prisoners suffered
from tuberculosis. Women worked in workshops of the company Lorenz AG
producing parts to radios, and ammunition.
The camp was liberated between 5th and 9th of May 1945.
FAL Parschnitz was located on the territory of a factory in the northern part of the town Parschnitz (Pořiči in Czech Republic). It was set up in the middle of March 1944, when to KL Gross- Rosen was subordinated a camp of forced labor for Jews of the “Schmelt” organization (ZALfJ). In November 1944 there were 1400 women prisoners, mainly from Poland, and Hungary. Prisoners worked in textile workshops of the company Alois Haase, Ignatz Etrich, J. A. Kluge; in a textile factory C. G. Walzel, and also produced engines, fuses, and parts to marine mines in the AEG workshops. At the end of the war women were building fortifications around the town.
The camp was liberated on 8th or 9th of May 1945.
FAL Peterswaldau was located in a palace in the town Peterswaldau (Pieszyce). Some of women prisoners were accommodated in the factory hall of the textile company F. Haase. This camp was created at the turn of March and April 1944, as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews of “Schmelt” organization (ZALfJ).
There were about 1000 Jewish women on the camp, who were citizens of Poland, Hungary, France, and Holland. They worked in textile companies F. G. Alter, Ferdinand Haase, and in the armament concern Karl Diehl, producing ammunition.
The camp was liberated on 8th of May 1945.
On 15th of December 1945 in Rauscha town (Górne Łużyce in Germany) was created an outer labor commando of AL Bunzlau I, a KL Gross- Rosen’s subcamp. There were 24 men of Jewish origin in the camp, who were brought from AL Bunzlau. This commando was providing workers to the local ammunition warehouse. At the beginning prisoners were building driveways and inner roads, next they were preparing the warehouse, and finally working in it.
On 16th of February 1945 prisoners wee evacuated. A truck drove them to a subcamp of KL Flossenbürg- Flöha, which they reached on 26th of February. In this camp they worked producing air planes.
AL Reichenau was located near the workshops of the company Gesselschaft für Technische und Wirtschaftliche Entwicklung GmbH (GETEWENT), in Riechenau (Rychnov in Czech Republic), in March 1944. Number of prisoners on the day 18.11.1945 was 300 men. They were mainly Poles, but also Czechs, Frenchmen, Belgians, Russians, and Germans. Prisoners worked in a factory producing and assembling radios, short- waves receivers, and radiolocation equipment. About 100 prisoners were directed to development and replacement of the railway tracks.
In the 2nd decade of February 1945, to AL Reichenau came larger part of KL Gross- Rosens guarding staff, together with the camp commandant, Hassebroek.
At night from 7th to 8th of May 1945 there was an attempt of evacuation of the camp, but after a several kilometers march, prisoners returned to the camp, where they were liberated.
FAL Reichenbach was established on 24th of August 1944, or in November 1944 (the exact date is unknown), in the town Reichenbach (Dzierżoniów). Barracks, in which were kept women prisoners, were probably built at present Brzegowa street. There were about 450 women, mainly Jewish, citizens of Holland, who were transported from KL Auschwitz through KL Gross- Rosen. Women worked for the company Telefunken, producing radio lamps.
On 18th of February 1945 the camp was evacuated; initially on foot to Parschnitz (Pořiči in Czech Republic), and later in trains, through Bergen- Belsen to Porta Westfalica, a subcamp of KL Neuengamme.
AL Rennensdorf was established on 20th of February 1945, when the town Rennensdorf (Saxony in Germany) was reached by group of prisoners evacuated from AL Görlitz, who ended the evacuation there. The camp was set up in the horse farm. Prisoners worked digging entrenchments, and anti-tank barriers. During few weeks of existence of this camp, died about ten men, who were buried at the local cemetery.
On 8th of March 1945, when the front settled itself in the outskirts of Görlitz, which was then changed into a fortress, prisoners returned to the camp in Görlitz, and worked building fortifications.
FAL Sackisch was established at the turn of August and September 1944. It was a part of a larger complex of camps (there were also prisoners of war camps, and camps for forced laborers), which were located on the distance of 2 kilometers of the road between Sackisch (Zakrze), and Bad- Kudowa (Kudowa Zdrój). There were at least 950 women prisoners in this camp, who were brought in several transports form KL Auschwitz. They were Jewish, originating from Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, and Yugoslavia. Almost all of them worked in Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke (VDM), which produced air- plane parts in the former textile plant of the company C. Dierig. Total number of victims is unknown. There are only accounts of death of about 16 inmates, who were buried near to the local church.
FAL Sackisch was not evacuated. In April 1945 the production in the workshops of VDM was stopped, and women were sent to work: some of them were building a road on the territory of the then Protectorate of Czech Republic and Moravia, and the others worked on local German farms.
On 8th of May 1945, Kommandoführerin announced women that they were free. After this, SS-men took prisoners on the Czech- German border in Nachod, where they were handed over to Czechs.
FAL Schatzlar was on the grounds of the company Bühl u. Sohne in Schatzlar (Žacléř in Czech Republic). It was set up in the first half of 1944, probably in March, as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews (ZALfJ) of the “Schmelt” organization. Prisoners of this camp were only women, and there were 150 of them. They were mainly Jewish from Poland, and also Hungary. They worked in the textile workshop of the company Bühl u. Sohne.
The camp was liberated on 8th of May 1945.
AL Schertendorf was located in the forest near Schertendorf (Przylep), which is close to Grünberg (Zielona Góra). The camp was established in October 1944. Its prisoners were Jews, mainly from Hungary. They worked in Grünberg for the company Beuchtel&Co., by the production of wagons.
At the end of February 1945, the camp was evacuated; prisoners were transported to KL Bergen- Belsen.
FAL Schlesiersee I was established in October 1944, in the town Schlesiersee (Sława Śląska), in the eastern farm “Neue Vorwerk”. In the camp there were women of Jewish origin from Poland, and Hungary. There is no certainty about the number of prisoners- there were about 500 of them, but no more than 1000. Women worked in the company Kraus, but were also digging fortifications, and anti- tank trenches. Total number of victims is unknown, but a lot of women died during the evacuation. After the war, near the village Stary Jaromir, there was discovered a grave of 41 victims.
On 21st of January 1945, the camp was closed, and prisoners were evacuated. First, on foot, to the camp Grünberg, and next, in the first decade of March 1945, to the subcamp of KL Flossenbürg, Helmbrechts.
FAL Schlesiersee II was established in October 1944, near the town Pürschkau (Przybyszów), in the western farm called “Bänisch”. There were women of Jewish origin in the camp, from Poland, and Hungary. Total number of prisoners leaves no certainty: there could be 500 of them, but no more than 1000. Women were building anti- tank trenches, and fortifications. Number of camp’s victims is unknown. A lot of prisoners died during the evacuation.
On 21st of January 1945, the camp was closed, and prisoners, together with those of the camp Schlesiersee I, were evacuated first on foot to the camp Grünberg, and next to KL Bergen- Belsen, which they reached at the end of February 1945.
FAL St. Georgenthal (Jiřetin in Czech Republic) was created before 11th of November 1944. There were about 50 women prisoners in the camp, who worked for the company Sicht- u. Zerlegewerke GmbH, dismantling broken air- planes.
On 9th of May 1945, the camp was liberated.
St. Georgenthal II
FAL Sankt Georgenthal II was established in February 1945, when to the partially destroyed building on the territory of the company „Anton Schulze Jr.“, were brought 300 Hungarian Jewesses. These women prisoners were evacuated along with other women from FAL Gebhardsdorf and FAL Gräflich- Röhrsdorf on 18th January, 1945. They were employed in the company “Anton Schulze Jr.” by the production of aerial parts.
On 8th May, 1945, Sankt Georgenthal was entered by Soviet soldiers and women were liberated.
AL Treskau was established in August 1943. It was located in the former mental institution in Treskau (Owińska), where during the World War II was Junkersschule SS. Prisoners were kept in a basement of one of the buildings. There were about 100 men in the camp, mainly Russians, and Poles, but also Czechs, Ukrainians, and Germans. Their main work was to build additional buildings for Junkersschule: stable, riding- school, garage, cinema, and a warren. Smaller groups occasionally worked in the neighborhood of Owińsk, and Poznań, and probably on the airfield in Bednary.
The camp was liquidated on 20th of January 1945, and prisoners were evacuated, first on foot to Poznań,and next, on a train, to KL Sachsenhausen.
AL Waldenburg was established in the outskirts of Stadtpark in Waldenburg (present district Gaj in Wałbrzych), at the turn of September and October 1944. In the camp there were about 650 men of Jewish origin, mainly from Poland. Less numerous groups were citizens of Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, and Hungary. In the camp died 6 prisoners, who were buried on the Jewish cemetery in Wałbrzych.
Prisoners worked building factory of synthetic fuel in Wałbrzych. Work of prisoners was used by such companies as: Albert Hof- Tiefbau, Philip Holyman, IG Farben, Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft, Syntetische Benzin- Fabrik Mathildehöhe.
At the end of the war, the camp started preparing the evacuation, which did not happen. In the morning on 8th of May 1945 the SS staff fled. Couple of hours later Soviet soldiers entered the camp’s territory.
FAL Weisswasser was created about the 15th of September 1944 in the town Weisswasser (Germany). Its prisoners were mainly Jewish women from Hungary. There were about 300 of them. Women worked for the company Valvo- Rohrenwerke, which was in buildings belonging to Glassfabrik Weisswasser, producing radio lamps.
In the third decade of February 1945 the camp was evacuated. Women were taken to the subcamp of KL Neuengamme, AL Horneburg.
FAL Wiesau (Wizów near to Bolesławiec) was established in September 1944. In the camp there were about 500 Jewish women form Hungary. Women worked in the ammunition factory Küppers.
In January 1945 all prisoners were evacuated.
FAL Wüstegiersdorf was created in April, or May 1944, near to textile workshops in Wüstegiersdorf (Głuszyca), or in these workshops, to which was transferred the company Friedrich Krupp from Essen. There were about 200 Jewish women in the camp, from Croatia, and Hungary. Women worked in Krupp workshops producing fuses.
On 8th of May 1945, prisoners were liberated.
FAL Zillerthal- Erdmansdorf (Mysłakowice) was established at the turn of May and June 1944, as a result of subordinating to KL Gross- Rosen a camp of forced labor for Jews (ZALfJ), of „Schmelt” organization. Prisoners of this camp were Jewish women brought from the transit camp in Sosnowiec. In the next transports, mainly from KL Auschwitz, prevailed Jewish women from Hungary. In general, there were about 500 women, who worked in the factory Erdmannsdorfer Leinfabrik AG in the loom, spinning plant, and in the reel plant.
On 17th of February 1945, women were evacuated. One group was directed to a subcamp of KL Gross- Rosen, AL Gablonz, the other one went to the town Morchenstern (Smržovka in Czech Republic), where was set up a new camp for them.
FAL Zittau was located couple of kilometers east from the center of Zittau (Germany), in Klein Schönau (Sieniawka). It was established on 28th of October 1944. Prisoners of this camp were Jewish women from Poland, and Hungary. They worked in the factory Zitterwerke AG producing air- planes, and ammunition.
In February 1945 to the camp were brought men, Jews evacuated from several subcamps of KL Gross- Rosen, and KL Auschwitz. Those of them, who were able to work, were sent to work in the factory Zitterwerke.
Both men, and women were liberated on 8th of May 1945.